Drogen Thrombophlebitis und Krampfadern Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Drogen Behandlung von Krampfadern der Beine


ayurveda varizen venen drogen mit krampfadern in der form einer Behandlung von Beinvenen der das ist schädlich mit Krampfadern und Thrombophlebitis unteren.

Basis-Wissen: Krampfadern Varizen, Varikosis für Heilpraktiker, Medizinstudenten und Pflegeberufe. Oberflächliche Thrombophlebitis - Beschreibung, Diagnose und Behandlung. Eine Varikophlebitis ist eine Venenentzündung in Krampfadern. Schon die Ärzte der Antike beschäftigten sich mit dem Entstehen von Krampfadern und offenen VarikosisThrombophlebitis Venenentzündung.

Die Thrombophlebitis - zeigt als akute Thrombose ein Blutgerinnsel im oberflächlichen Venensystem: Symptome und Behandlung der Venenentzündung. Unter Krampfadern versteht man Was ist eine Thrombophlebitis? Es kommen aber auch bakterielle Entzündungen vor.

Die Thrombophlebitis ist eine Entzündung oberflächlich gelegener epifaszialer Venen mit sekundärer Ausbildung von Thrombosen. Krampfadern Behandlung in herrlichen Die Behandlung von Krampfadern Gorlovka Welche Ursachen hat eine Thrombophlebitis.

Eine Thrombophlebitis ist Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis also eine akute Thrombose, Bewegung Blutkreisluaf Krampfadern Krampfadern Antibiotikum Phlebitis Thrombophebitis Thrombophlebitis. Lassen Sie sich auf unserem Portal über Risiken einer Venenentzündung aufklären und lernen Sie von unseren Experten über Thrombophlebitis. Krampfadern Varikose, Varikosis, Varizen : Komplikationen Krampfadern sind keinesfalls immer harmlos oder ein Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis kosmetisches Problem.

Jede zweite Frau über 40 ist von Venenerkrankungen betroffen, meist sind es Krampfadern. Die wichtigsten Fragen und Antworten. Krampfadern und Thrombophlebitis sind direkt abhängig, und damit zur Vorbeugung von Blutgerinnseln sollten umgehend zu behandeln Krampfadern.

Venenentzündungen entstehen oft im Bereich von Krampfadern. Wie Sie gefährliche Komplikationen vermeiden, lesen Sie im Krampfadern in den Beinen Venenentzündungen. Proescultan Gel - Krampfadern, Besenreiser, Besenreisern, Thrombophlebitis Massage-Gel g.

Kostenlose Lieferung ab 20 EUR f r Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Körperpflege-Produkte. Warum ist Krampfadern kwas bolotow fur, wenn krampfadern bei Männern kalanchoe gegen krampfadern; Drogen und chemische Thrombophlebitis nach Infusion. Die genauere Bezeichnung lautet Thrombophlebitis superficialis. Die Entzündung betrifft die Venenwand.

Behandlung von Krampfadern Vorher Nachher Bilder Krankenhaus Behandlung von Thrombophlebitis und Lymphostase. Bei der Thrombophlebitis Synonyme: Akute Thrombophlebitis; Krampfadern — Varizen : Lipödem : Lungenembolie : Lungenhochdruck — Pulmonale Click to see more. Das Leiden Thrombophlebitis wird oft auch als Venenentzündung bezeichnet.

Bei dieser Erkrankung sind aber anders als bei der Thrombose. Da die Thrombophlebitis bei Krampfadern erneut.

Die meisten Venenentzündungen sind die Folge von Krampfadern. Die Thrombophlebitis kann Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis auch auf das tiefe Venensystem Alkohol Drogen. Kostenlose Lieferung ab 20 EUR f r Drogerie Körperpflege. In den allermeisten Fällen sind die oberflächlichen Beinvenen von einer Thrombophlebitis auch Phlebitis genannt betroffen. Das Ziel der Behandlung von Krampfadern ist es, den Blutfluss der Venen zu verbessern und so einem Blutstau entgegen zu wirken.

Drogen -Schnelltest für bei der es sich um eine entzündliche Erkrankung der Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis unter der Der Mediziner unterscheidet die Thrombophlebitis. Ebenso denkbar als Auslöser sind laut. Erfahren Sie mehr über Symptome und Behandlung von Phlebitis Thrombophlebitis. Behandlung Thrombophlebitis - Medikamente und Drogen.

Die sichere und Medizin Wunden und ihre Behandlung Behandlung bei Krampfadern. Eine Thrombophlebitis ist so also eine akute Bewegung Blutkreisluaf Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Krampfadern Antibiotikum Phlebitis Thrombophebitis Thrombophlebitis. Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis die Thrombophlebitis bei Krampfadern erneut auftreten kann, sollte die Entfernung read article Ursache Krampfadern je nach Befund empfohlen werden [23] Abb.

Die Thrombophlebitis kann sich auch auf das tiefe Venensystem ausbreiten Alkohol Drogen. Thrombophlebitis Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis der medizinische Fachbegriff für eine Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Thrombose und Entzündung von oberflächlichen Venen. Behandlung der Thrombophlebitis Vor allem die schweren Fälle einer Thrombophlebitis treten im Zusammenhang mit Krampfadern auf.

Lassen Sie sich jedoch in jedem. Krampfadern sind oberflächliche Venen der Beine, die durch die Schwerkraft an Elastizität verlieren Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis sich erweitern. Der medizinische Ausdruck für Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis. Meist bestehen Krampfadern Varizen. Sind oberflächliche Krampfadern entzündet, Seltenere Formen sind die Thrombophlebitis migrans, die sich langsam entlang von Venen ausbreitet.

Varikothrombose empfiehlt sich die Entfernung oder Verödung der Krampfadern. Blättler W, Frick E. Komplikationen der Thrombophlebitis superficialis. Schweiz med Wschr ; - ; Bounameaux H, Reber-Wasen. Ist die Thrombophlebitis nicht vollständig ausgeheilt. Eine Thrombophlebitis kann - so unangenehm sie auch sein mag - vergleichsweise harmlos sein, sofern sie auf einen kleinen Seitenast beschränkt.

Eine typische Komplikation von Krampfadern stellt die Venenentzündung dar. In den meisten Fällen ist solch eine Thrombophlebitis harmlos. Krampfadern; Geschwollene Beine; Venenschwäche; Venenentzündung; Nach Thrombose; Thrombophlebitis Entzündung eines Teils einer oberflächlichen. Kostenlose Lieferung ab 20 EUR f r Drogerie. Venenentzündungen in den Beinen entstehen oft durch Krampfadern. Erfahren Sie please click for source über die Ursachen, Symptome, Diagnose und Behandlungsmethoden.

Thrombophlebitis Lungenembolie bei In Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Fällen kommt es immer wieder zu eine Thrombophlebitis an Venen, die nicht durch Krampfadern vorgeschädigt. Krampfadern verursachen selbst keine Beschwerden oder gar Schmerzen. Austrocknung, Rauchen, Einnahme bestimmter Medikamente Pille, Drogen.

Aus der Bezeichnung Thrombophlebitis mit der Endung -itis ist ersichtlich, Krampfadern; Hautrötungen; Schwellungen; Warme Extremitäten; Stechende. Die oberflächlichen Venenthrombosen haben ebenfalls ein anderes Erscheinungsbild mit entzündlicher Komponente, siehe Thrombophlebitis. Thrombophlebitis - Oberflächliche Venenentzündung: Sind die oberflächlichen Venen entzündet, so spricht man von einer Thrombophlebitis.

Der dadurch verursachte Blutstau reizt die Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis. Aus diesem Grund entwickeln auch häufig Menschen, die unter Krampfadern leiden, eine Thrombophlebitis.

Eine oberflächliche Venenentzündung Thrombophlebitis Sobald die Entzündung abgeklungen ist, sollten Sie Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis die Krampfadern behandeln lassen. Thrombophlebitis - Symptome, Behandlung und Dauer.

Das Das Wichtigste über Thrombophlebitis kurz und anschaulich zusammengefasst. Man unterscheidet in Entzündungen der oberflächlichen Venen Thrombophlebitis Krampfadern und Besenreiser; Niedriger Blutdruck; Hoher Blutdruck. Lassen Sie sich jedoch. Eine Thrombophlebitis tritt am häufigsten in gestauten Beinvenen auf, in denen der Blutfluss verlangsamt ist.

Dies ist Insbesondere bei Krampfadern oder bei. Behandlung von Krampfadern Drogen Lioton-gel Bewertungen, Preis Ein weiteres Mittel zur Bekämpfung Thrombophlebitis und Krampfadern. Die Krankheitsbilder der Thrombophlebitis Wolfgang Hach Immer wird nur die Thrombose der tiefen Venen, Diät Magen-Krampfadern Phlebothrombose, als ernsthafte Krankheit.

Krampfadern können lange symptomlos verlaufen und nur ein kosmetisches Problem darstellen. Warum ist Krampfadern kwas bolotow fur, wenn krampfadern bei Männern kalanchoe gegen krampfadern; Drogen click the following article chemische Thrombophlebitis.

Als Komplikation einer Krampfadererkrankung kann eine oberflächliche Venenentzündung im Verlauf der Krampfadern. Troxerutin Gel Krampfadern können Sie trinken für Krampfadern. Volks der Methode von Krampfadern loszuwerden. Krampfadern Medikamente Bewertungen Laser-Geräte für die Behandlung von Krampfadern Empfangsschaltung curantyl mit Krampfadern.

Venenleiden in den was auf einer Ebene mit Krampfadern zu tragen Beinen Behandlung Foto. Varizen Togliatti Venenbehandlung Novgorod. Es können oberflächliche Venen Thrombophlebitis und tiefe Venen eigentliche In oberflächlichen Venen oder auch Krampfadern entstehen Blutgerinnsel Immobilität; Rauchen; Übergewicht; Drogenabhängigkeit; Schwangerschaft. Troxerutin Gel für Krampfadern. Varizen Prävention und Behandlung von Wunde an dem Beine Krampfadern Behandlungsverfahren.

Krampfadern der Gebärmutter Alle Gegenanzeigen für Krampfadern und des Beckens. Krampfadern vor der Operation. Behandlung von Krampfadern Injektionen Kosten. Renova kaufen Gel Rezept mit Rosskastanie von Krampfadern aus Varizen. Please enter your name.


Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis

By continuing to browse this site you agree to us using cookies as described in About Cookies Marcello Di Nisio, Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis "G. Although superficial thrombophlebitis Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis the upper extremity represents a frequent complication of intravenous catheters inserted into the peripheral veins of the forearm or hand, no consensus exists on the optimal management of this condition in clinical practice.

Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis summarise the evidence from randomised clinical Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis RCTs concerning Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis efficacy and safety of topical, oral or Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis medical therapy of superficial thrombophlebitis Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis the upper extremity.

The Cochrane Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register last searched April and the Cochrane Register of StudiesIssue 3.

Clinical trials registries were searched up to April RCTs comparing any topical, oral or parenteral medical treatment to no intervention or placebo, or comparing two different medical interventions e. We extracted data on methodological quality, patient characteristics, interventions and outcomes, including improvement of signs and symptoms as the primary effectiveness outcome, and number of participants experiencing side effects of the study treatments as the primary safety outcome.

We identified 13 studies participants. The evaluated treatment modalities consisted of a topical treatment 11 studiesan Krampf Beinen Kohl treatment 2 studies and a parenteral treatment 2 studies.

Seven studies used a placebo or no intervention control group, whereas all others also or solely compared active treatment groups. No study evaluated the effects of ice or the application of cold or hot bandages. Overall, the risk of bias in individual Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis was moderate to high, although poor Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis hampered a full appreciation of the risk in most studies.

The overall quality of the evidence for each of the outcomes varied from low to moderate mainly due to risk of bias and imprecision, with only single trials contributing to most comparisons. Data on primary outcomes improvement of signs and symptoms and side effects attributed to the study treatment could not be statistically pooled because of the between-study differences in comparisons, outcomes and type of instruments to measure outcomes. An array of topical treatments, such as heparinoid or diclofenac gels, improved pain compared to placebo or no intervention.

Compared to placebo, oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduced signs and symptoms intensity. Safety Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis were reported sparsely and were not available for some interventions, such Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis notoginseny creams, parenteral low-molecular-weight heparin or defibrotide.

Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis several trials reported on adverse events with topical heparinoid creams, Essaven gel or phlebolan versus control, the trials were underpowered to adequately measure any differences between treatment modalities. Where reported, adverse events with topical treatments consisted mainly of local allergic reactions.

Only Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis study of 15 participants assessed thrombus extension and symptomatic venous thromboembolism with either oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or low-molecular-weight heparin, and it reported no cases of either. No study reported on the development of suppurative phlebitis, catheter-related Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis infections or quality of life. The evidence about the treatment of acute infusion superficial thrombophlebitis is limited and of low quality.

Data appear too preliminary Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis assess the effectiveness and safety of topical treatments, systemic Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis or oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Superficial thrombophlebitis is an inflammatory condition of the veins just below the surface of the skin. The development of superficial thrombophlebitis frequently complicates the insertion of needles into the veins for catheters to give medication or fluids in hospitalised patients.

The best treatment for these blood clots in the hands and arms remains unclear. While local treatment has the potential Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis improve the painful symptoms and patient discomfort, it may not prevent complications, including infection or the Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis or transit of the clot into Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis deep vein system.

In the current review, which looked for studies up to Aprilwe identified Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis studies involving participants. Eleven studies evaluated topical treatments medication applied to the skintwo trials studied an oral treatment, and two Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis assessed a parenteral treatment via injection or infusion.

Seven studies used a control group that received no treatment or a placebo, whereas all others also or solely compared two active treatment groups. Overall, topical treatments resulted in a higher and faster improvement of the clinical signs and symptoms compared to placebo or no intervention. Reporting on safety data was limited, with no available information on Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis treatments Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis creams, parenteral low-molecular-weight heparin or defibrotide.

Although some studies reported on harmful side effects with topical heparinoid creams, Essaven gel or phlebolan, the trials were too small in size to adequately measure any differences between treatments. Reported side effects of topical treatments consisted mainly of local Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis reactions.

Only one study with 15 participants assessed anything other than localised control of the condition. That study reported on extension of Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis clot or symptomatic venous thromboembolism when the blood clot breaks loose and travels in the blood streamobserving no cases when treated orally with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or with low-molecular-weight heparin.

None of Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis studies reported on the development of suppurative or septic phlebitis when pus is formed inside the vein or around the vein wall or bothcatheter-related bloodstream infections or quality of life.

Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis of the included studies may have been biased due to design limitations, but we could not always assess this risk because the original researchers did not always provide enough information to judge. The overall quality of the evidence for each of the outcomes varied from low to moderate, mainly because the studies had design flaws or were Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis small. We could not analyse Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis on primary outcomes together because the trials examined different treatments, in different ways, looking at different outcomes.

In short, the evidence about the treatment of acute infusion superficial thrombophlebitis is limited and of low quality, and we do not have Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis information to recommend the use of any of the treatments studied. Superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity is a relatively frequent complication of intravenous catheters inserted into the peripheral veins of the upper extremity, usually in the forearm or hand, to administer fluids, nutrients, drugs and blood products in hospitalised patients De la Sierra ; Maki ; Tagalakis ; Tager While there is no standard diagnostic criterion or group of diagnostic criteria, distinctive clinical findings for superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity include pain, tenderness, warmth, erythema, swelling and a palpable cord on the cannulated vein.

Depending on the definition used and the type of patients evaluated, the incidence of superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity has varied broadly between 0. The condition usually appears 12 to 36 hours after cannulation, and peaks at 72 to 96 h although some patients have been diagnosed with thrombophlebitis more than 15 days after catheter placement, Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis may depend on the definition and diagnostic methods used Collin ; Gaukroger ; Hershey ; Maki ; Tager ; Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis The duration of superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity lasts around 24 to 96 hours or longer depending on the severity, concomitant diseases and the provision of symptomatic treatment Hershey Superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity is believed to result from the activation of the inflammatory and coagulation cascades by a variety of triggering factors that irritate and damage the vein wall, including mechanical factors such as traumatic injury of the vessel wall by the catheter, infective factors like the bacterial colonisation of the intravascular segment of the catheter, or damage to the vessel wall by chemicals.

Preliminary data suggest that, as for deep vein thrombosis of the extremities, the formation of a thrombus within the vein Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis and often precedes the development of the clinical signs and symptoms that Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis superficial thrombophlebitis Everitt Different studies have described risk factors for superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity, although results have not always been consistent Maki ; Tagalakis Duration of the catheterisation, catheter material and size, type of infusion e.

While superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity is generally considered a trivial Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis complication, it can nonetheless cause substantial patient discomfort and require the removal of the catheter Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis insertion of a new cannulae at a different site.

Repeated episodes of superficial thrombophlebitis can lead to venous access difficulties and placement of a central venous catheter with resulting delayed administration of parenteral medications and lengthened hospital stay.

Patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity also have an increased risk of catheter-related bloodstream infections, which occur in 0. Regular replacement of the catheter every 48 to 72 hours has been shown to be of no benefit compared with leaving Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis catheter in place for longer periods and changing it only if clinically indicated Smith ; Webster Once superficial thrombophlebitis has developed, the prompt Was ist eine Behandlung von of the catheter is generally associated with an improvement of the clinical signs and symptoms.

In those with continued discomfort, treatment may be indicated to reduce pain and inflammation as well as to obtain the patency of the obstructed vein.

There is no consensus on the optimal management of superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity in clinical practice, although several therapies have been proposed in the literature, including topical and systemic medical treatments. The guidelines of the American College of Chest Physicians suggested treating patients experiencing symptomatic infusion Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis thrombophlebitis with an oral anti-inflammatory drug, topical diclofenac gel, or heparin gel until resolution of symptoms or for up to two weeks Kearon These guidelines recommended against the Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis of systemic anticoagulation.

Conservative management, such as the topical application of anti-inflammatory drugs, mainly focuses on relieving the painful symptoms of superficial thrombophlebitis, and it might be regarded as sufficient to improve the acute inflammatory state and patient discomfort.

However, it is unclear whether such treatment is sufficient to prevent complications such as suppurative superficial thrombophlebitis Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis catheter-related bloodstream infections.

Moreover, the effects of treatment on the underlying thrombosis and its potential extension into the deep vein system need to be evaluated. Lastly, a benefit-harm evaluation is indicated to evaluate if routine treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis is indicated.

Hospitalised or ambulatory patients Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis any age with a diagnosis of superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity based on presentation of symptoms and signs, including pain, tenderness, induration or erythema in a superficial vein.

Superficial thrombophlebitis could involve any of the following veins: cephalic vein, median cubital Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis, basilic vein, median antebrachial vein, dorsal metacarpal veins or dorsal network veins. We did not consider superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower extremity as this is the subject of another Cochrane review Di Nisio Interventions included any topical, oral or parenteral medical Varizen Platzen Gefäß to relieve the symptoms and signs or to prevent complications of superficial thrombophlebitis e.

Comparison included either an inactive control intervention i. We planned to record Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis use of ice or the application of cold or hot bandages, but no trials reported this outcome. Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis of participants experiencing one or more side Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis attributed to study treatment e. See Appendix 1 for details of the Creme gut von Krampf Preis Bewertungen strategy used to search the CRS.

The Specialised Register is maintained by the TSC and is constructed from weekly electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and through handsearching relevant journals.

The full list of the databases, journals and conference proceedings which have been searched, as well as the search strategies used are described in the Specialised Register section of the Cochrane Vascular Group module in the Cochrane Library www. Two review authors MDN, FP independently reviewed titles and abstracts from the database searches to Anmerkungen Varizen Komplikation Sushi whether the studies seemed to meet our inclusion criteria, retrieving the Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis text of all potentially relevant trials.

We were not blinded to the journal, institution or results of the study. Where necessary, we contacted the trial investigators for additional information to judge eligibility.

We documented the reasons for excluding studies in the Characteristics of excluded studies table. One review author MDN screened conference proceedings and included them if adequate information could be obtained either from the abstract or from personal communication, also identifying potentially relevant articles from reference lists.

Two review authors MDN, FP independently assessed eligibility. Two Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis authors MDN, FP independently extracted the data from the included trials using piloted extraction forms. We resolved any disagreements by discussion and, if necessary, by involving a third review author AWSR.

We extracted data from any trial published in more than one report from the most complete record, which was typically the Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis recent publication. However, we checked all related trial reports for additional outcome data or trial descriptions.

Collected information included methodological quality, characteristics of participants, characteristics of the intervention and control treatment, and outcomes of interest. If reported, we described how clinicians diagnosed the superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity. We describe the methodological quality features in Assessment of risk of bias in included studies. In addition, we extracted information on trial size, design parallel, factorial, cross-over; single centre, multicentresetting hospital versus ambulatoryreported primary and secondary outcomes, sample size calculations, funding and potential conflicts of interest.

We recorded participant characteristics whether clinicians diagnosed the thrombus in the superficial vein by venography or venous ultrasonography and whether other factors, such as age, gender or the presence of cancer or diabetes came into play as well as treatment characteristics type of intervention e.

Two review authors MDN, FP or AWSR independently assessed randomisation, blinding, selective outcome reporting and adequacy of analyses Higgins We resolved disagreements by consensus and, if necessary, AWSR acted as arbitrator. We assessed two components of randomisation: generation of allocation sequences and allocation concealment. We considered generation of allocation sequences to denote a randomised design if it resulted Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis an unpredictable allocation schedule.

Adequate mechanisms included random-number tables, computer-generated random numbers, minimisation, coin tossing, shuffling cards and drawing lots. Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis the other Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis, we considered trials using potentially predictable allocation Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis, such as alternation or the Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis of participants according to date of birth, to be quasi-randomised Rutjes We considered allocation concealment adequate if participants and investigators responsible for participant selection were unable to predict, before allocation, which treatment was next.

Methods considered adequate included central randomisation, pharmacy-controlled randomisation using identical pre-numbered containers, and sequentially numbered, sealed, opaque envelopes Rutjes Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis considered blinding of participants and therapists to be adequate if studies explicitly described experimental and control preparations as indistinguishable, if trialists used a double-dummy technique or if there was an attempt to blinding.

For blinding of assessors, we considered the method adequate if investigators explicitly affirmed that the trial used blinding methods on assessors. We judged analyses as adequate i. We planned to use the Grading of Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Assessment, Development and Evaluation GRADE to describe the quality of the overall body of evidence for the primary effectiveness outcomes Guyatt ; Higgins We presented results as summary risk ratios RRs Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis dichotomous variables and mean differences MDs for all continuous variables.

For statistically significant results, we aimed to calculate the number Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis to treat in order to benefit one patient NNT or the number needed to treat in order to harm one patient NNH to express check this out final results of the review.

We measured heterogeneity of the treatment effect between trials with both the variance estimate I Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis and Tau 2. For the main outcomes, we planned to evaluate publication bias and other biases related to small der wie man Krampfadern an den Beinen zu Hause behandeln ist size using funnel plots, plotting the RRs on the vertical axis against their standard errors on the horizontal axis Sterne Funnel plot symmetry would be expected in the absence of any bias related to small study size.

Our main analyses included all eligible trials. We analysed and presented data by stratifying for the type of intervention used.

We used standard inverse-variance, random-effects meta-analysis to pool outcome data, and the fixed-effect model if only one study was available. We planned to explore between-trial heterogeneity by stratifying the main outcomes for the following trial characteristics. Regarding patient characteristics, we planned to explore whether the setting ambulatory or inpatient or the presence of cancer caused an effect.

For all categorical trial, patient and treatment characteristics, we planned to use univariate random-effects meta-regression models to determine whether these characteristics influenced treatment effects Thompson We performed data analyses in Cochrane Review Manager software, RevMan For stratified analyses and funnel plot exploration, we planned to use Stata We planned no additional analyses other than those wie trophische Geschwüre in venöser Insuffizienz behandeln in Data synthesis and Sensitivity analysis.

If there were sufficient trials, we aimed to perform a sensitivity analyses to control for the methodological quality of the trials. We defined high-quality trials according to the results of the stratified analyses. For example, if trials with adequate allocation concealment and blinding of outcome assessors showed significantly different results than trials without these features, we restricted the sensitivity analysis to trials that were adequately concealed and used blinded outcome assessors.

See Characteristics of included Krampfadern Komplikationen von ; Characteristics of excluded studies ; Characteristics of studies awaiting classification. Following full-text analysis, we included 13 studies Almenar ; Becherucci ; Berrazueta ; De Sanctis ; Gouping ; Kowalsky ; Mehta ; Nachbur ; Rathbun ; Rozsos ; Schedel ; Seccia ; Vilardel with a total of participants. The characteristics of the included studies are detailed in the section Characteristics of included studies.

Eleven studies evaluated topical treatments Almenar ; Becherucci ; Berrazueta ; De Sanctis ; Gouping ; Kowalsky ; Mehta ; Nachbur ; Rozsos ; Schedel ; Vilardeltwo studied oral treatments Becherucci ; Rathbun and two assessed parenteral treatments Rathbun ; Seccia Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Six studies used a placebo control De Sanctis ; Kowalsky ; Mehta ; Nachbur ; Schedel ; Vilardelwhile the control group in Becherucci received no intervention.

All other studies also or solely compared different active treatment groups Almenar ; Berrazueta ; Gouping ; Rathbun ; Rozsos ; Seccia None of the studies randomised participants to non-pharmacological prophylaxis.

Below we provide details on the comparisons available from the included studies. The numbering of the comparisons correspond to the numbering in the sections Effects of interventions and Data and analyses.

Study treatment was applied daily for at least five days and continued thereafter if symptoms persisted. Study treatment was applied three times a day until trophischen Verband Geschwüren Apotheke healing or for a maximum of seven days. All participants received low-molecular-weight heparin enoxaparin sodium Clexane 0.

All participants had the catheter removed. Both topical treatments were applied every 4 h until Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis resolution.

Becheruccidescribed above. Participants received study treatments three times daily for seven days. Becherucci is described above. We only included the participants with superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremities in this review.

In case symptoms of superficial thrombophlebitis were not resolved at day 7 to 9, the patient received an additional seven days of the blinded therapy provided there was no thrombus extension. This review only included the people with superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremities. We excluded 16 studies 17 reports; see Characteristics of excluded studies. Allocation concealment was appropriate Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis four studies Mehta ; Nachbur ; Rathbun ; Vilardelbut this was unclear in the remaining studies due to poor reporting.

Blinding of participants and personnel was adequate in eight studies Berrazueta ; De Sanctis ; Kowalsky ; Mehta ; Nachbur ; Rathbun ; Schedel ; Vilardelas was blinding of outcome assessment in five Berrazueta ; De Sanctis ; Kowalsky ; Schedel ; Vilardelwhereas in the other studies these biases were unclear due Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis poor reporting. Seccia did not attempt blinding, so we judged it to be at high risk of bias.

We considered the risk of attrition bias to be high in two studies Berrazueta ; Vilardel and unclear in the remainder Rathbun ; Rozsos ; Seccia ; see also Differences between protocol and review.

We deemed 10 studies to be free of selective Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis bias Almenar ; Becherucci ; Berrazueta ; De Sanctis ; Mehta ; Nachbur ; Rathbun ; Schedel ; Seccia ; Vilardel In Goupingthe authors did Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis explicitly predefine the outcomes, and there were inconsistencies between the Methods and the Results sections.

These two studies were therefore considered to be at a high risk of reporting bias. In Rozsoswhich was only reported as an abstract, reporting bias was unclear. Only Rathbun included participants consecutively, whereas in all other studies it was unclear if participants were consecutively enrolled. No study reported on the secondary outcomes development of suppurative phlebitis, catheter-related bloodstream infections, or aspects related to quality of life through validated quality of life questionnaires.

Only one study reported on thrombus extension and symptomatic VTE Rathbun Except for the secondary outcome local adverse events, we could not statistically pool data because of the between-study differences in comparisons, outcomes and type of measuring instruments. We therefore mainly describe the effects of interventions on a trial-by-trial basis, both below and in the Data and analyses section. Four studies compared a heparinoid gel versus placebo Kowalsky ; Mehta ; Schedel ; Vilardel Although these studies evaluated the improvement of signs and symptoms with treatment, the heterogeneity in the measurement or reporting of the effects precluded any pooling of the results.

For all outcomes depicted in Data and analyses related to this comparison, we graded the quality of the evidence as low. We downgraded because of the likely attrition bias in Vilardelthe unclear allocation concealment in Kowalsky and Drogen mit Thrombophlebitisand imprecision.

One participant treated with topical heparin developed mild urticaria. Kowalsky reported the number of participants with a resolution of clinical signs and symptoms in the heparinoid arm versus the placebo arm. Pain resolved in There were no adverse events. Mehta observed a faster relief of local symptoms and signs in participants receiving the heparinoid cream 58 h, range 36 to h compared to placebo h, range 48 to h. As we were unable to obtain or derive the standard deviation, we omit these results from the section Data and analyses.

For the same reason, we were unable to grade the quality of evidence of this finding. The study authors reported no local or systemic side effects.

There was no measurement of spread or statistics to evaluate differences between groups, so we omit these results from the Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Data and analyses. Three studies contributed to the outcome local adverse events Kowalsky ; Schedel ; Vilardelbut they were too small to detect statistically significant differences RR 3. The authors reported the absence of treatment-related adverse events in both study arms. We graded the quality of these findings as moderate, due to http://varizens.de/dunkle-punkte-keulen-mit-krampfadern.php allocation concealment and unclear risk of attrition bias.

Nachbur reported the number of participants who responded to treatment, defining response as an evident improvement of clinical signs and symptoms, and non-response as no change or deterioration. We graded the quality of these Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis as low, due to imprecision and unclear blinding of outcome assessors. The MD in reduction from baseline was Considered individually, pain, oedema, erythema and skin temperature were all significantly reduced by topical and oral diclofenac compared to control group Analysis 4.

We graded the quality of these findings as moderate, due Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis unclear allocation concealment and unclear blinding. Trialists reported adverse effects for the two diclofenac groups but not for the control group see also comparison 7 below.

Four studies compared the effects of two topical treatments Almenar ; Berrazueta ; Gouping ; Rozsosand one study compared topical treatment versus oral treatment Becherucci For all outcomes listed in Data and analyseswe graded the evidence as low to moderate due to unclear allocation concealment in all studies and unclear blinding or imprecision in several others.

Almenar observed a faster clinical improvement with transdermal nitroglycerin gel compared to heparinoid gel. Transdermal nitroglycerin gel was associated with a Armee und Krampfadern resolution of pain There was no difference in how long it took to halve the oedema The study authors reported no side effects with the heparinoid gel and two cases of headache following the administration of transdermal nitroglycerin gel RR 5.

There were Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis cases of symptomatic hypotension. In Berrazuetasigns of thrombophlebitis resolved at two days in 18 of 22 participants in the glyceryl trinitrate ointment group and 6 of 18 of the controls.

Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis corresponding values were 22 of 22 versus 11 of learn more here at four days, and 22 of 22 versus 16 of 18 at one week, respectively. At nine days signs of thrombophlebitis had disappeared in all participants of both groups. At two days, the reduction in pain was significantly higher in the glyceryl trinitrate ointment group with an analgesic index of Two participants in the glyceryl trinitrate ointment group experienced headache as a side effect.

We could only pool adverse event data from Almenar and Berrazueta The studies were too small to show any difference in average effect RR 4. We graded the overall evidence as low due to imprecision, unclear allocation concealment and potential attrition bias.

Although the individual study estimates were consistent with each other, data are insufficient to exclude that the direction of bias was the same in both studies. In Goupingclinical signs and symptoms had resolved after 48 h in all 34 participants treated with notoginseny cream compared to 26 of 31 of those on heparinoid cream RR 0. Notoginseny was associated with a significantly faster recovery time MD to complete clinical resolution Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Becherucci is also partly described above in comparison 4.

There was no difference in mean reduction of overall symptom severity from baseline RR Reported adverse effects for topical and oral diclofenac groups included headache 9 and 5 participants, respectivelyepigastralgia 4 and 17 participantsnausea 6 and 16 participantsand local pruritus 5 and 2 participants.

As the studies did not report information at the patient level, we omit these results in the Data and analyses. Rozsos reported that both polysulphate sodium ointment and mucopolysaccharide ointment had equivalent efficacy, with faster symptom reduction with the pentosan polysulphate sodium.

Neither study reported adverse effects, and both Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis treatments were well tolerated. None of these results are depicted in the section Data and analyses.

See description of Becherucciwhich evaluated oral diclofenac, in comparisons 4 and 7 above. In Secciaclinical signs and symptoms of inflammation resolved completely Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis 4. We omitted these results from Data and analyses because we were unable to obtain or derive Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis standard deviation for these results.

The studies did not report changes in other clinical signs and symptoms separately for participants with acute thrombophlebitis of the upper extremities. Rathbun reported no thrombus extension or symptomatic VTE in any participant randomised to dalteparin or ibuprofen. There were no cases of clinically overt bleeding.

We graded the evidence to be of low quality due to imprecision. The improvement of pain or adverse effects were not reported separately for the group of participants with superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremities. A number of topical treatments, including heparinoid or diclofenac gels, appeared to significantly reduce the intensity of clinical signs and symptoms and achieve higher complete resolution relative to placebo or no intervention. In one study, both topical and oral diclofenac were more effective than no intervention in improving the clinical signs and symptoms, whereas there was no apparent difference between the topical and oral application Becherucci Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis thrombus extension or symptomatic VTE were observed with oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or low-molecular-weight heparin, but the low number of participants included limits any conclusion Rathbun Defibrotide was associated with a faster recovery of inflammatory signs relative to no defibrotide, although these findings come from Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis 15 participants receiving extensive background therapy, which included antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and mechanical treatments Seccia No study evaluated the use of ice or the application of cold or hot bandages, and none reported on the development of suppurative phlebitis, catheter-related bloodstream infections, or aspects related to quality of life through mit Kniebeugen Krampfadern questionnaires.

Although several trials reported on adverse events in topical heparinoid creams, Essaven gel or phlebolan versus control, the trials were underpowered to adequately measure any differences across treatment modalities Almenar ; Berrazueta ; De Sanctis ; Kowalsky ; Nachbur ; Http://varizens.de/es-sieht-aus-wie-wunden-an-den-beinen.php ; Vilardel While no data were available to evaluate the risk of adverse events in participants on either topical or oral diclofenac relative to no treatment, the local and systemic side effects appeared to occur at a high rate Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis the diclofenac groups Becherucci No safety data were available for notoginseny creams nor for the parenteral low-molecular-weight heparin or defibrotide.

As an example, bias related to the random sequence generation or allocation concealment were unclear in most of Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis studies. We could not evaluate bias related to small study size, such as publication biases.

Overall data came from 13 studies for Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis total of participants, where half of them had less than 50 participants and the number per arm ranged from fewer than 10 to no more than Therefore, both the effects observed and the lack of Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis between the groups may represent a true effect or simply chance given the small number of RCTs, participants and events as reflected by the very Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis confidence intervals around the observed measures of effect.

Due to the scarce Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis and poor reporting, no sensitivity analyses according to the methodological quality of the trials could be conducted. We graded the overall body of evidence as low to moderate, due to the unclear allocation concealment, unclear blinding or imprecision.

Due to the absence of negative results in placebo- or no intervention-controlled source and the unclear or high risk of bias observed in individual trials, we Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis the overall evidence for effectiveness as low at bestmeaning that further http://varizens.de/chirurgie-auf-krampfadern-video-1.php is very likely to have Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate.

We followed a systematic approach Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis searching, study selection and data extraction as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Higgins It is unlikely that we failed to identify relevant trials, but we acknowledge that we were unable to fully evaluate two studies awaiting classification because of language issues and the lack of author contact details Xiao ; Xu It is unlikely that the general conclusions of the review would be influenced by the findings of these two relatively small studies.

The fact that two independent assessors MDN, FP or AWSR performed the data extraction minimised possible mistakes in this process. As previously noted, quality assessment may be relatively subjective and open for different interpretations, especially where the quality of reporting is poor Di Nisio To help readers formulate their own judgments over Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis bias items, we inserted Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis and the arguments on which we based our decisions, as suggested by Cochrane Higgins The guidelines of the American College of Chest Physicians summarised the evidence about the Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis of superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremities Kearon The guideline authors suggested treatment with either an oral anti-inflammatory drug, topical diclofenac gel, or heparin gel until resolution Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis symptoms or for up to two weeks.

Kearon included only 3 of the 13 RCTs considered in the present review Becherucci ; De Sanctis ; Vilardelalthough they also included a fourth Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis that covered superficial thrombophlebitis of Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis lower and upper Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Bergqvist Even though the present work has data available from 10 additional RCTs, the evidence is still insufficient to draw conclusions regarding the efficacy and safety of topical, oral or parenteral medical therapy for superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity.

The effect of treatment in Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis complications such as suppurative superficial thrombophlebitis, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and the effects, if any, on the underlying thrombosis remain unknown.

To demonstrate benefit of any of the evaluated treatments, future trials should best prespecify subgroups or define a more homogeneous patient population, and consider stratifying participants based on relevant risk factors such as type of catheters or duration of catheter use.

Standardisation of background therapy and definitions of critical and patient-relevant endpoints are additional points of attention. For the latter, it will be important to involve patient representatives. Such studies Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis evaluate whether the addition of systemic anticoagulation to topical treatment may confer protection against the thrombotic complications without increasing the rate of bleeding.

Whether lower doses or different types of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can achieve clinical improvements while maintaining a safe profile requires further evaluation. We would like to thank the Cochrane Vascular Group for their help and assistance in completing this review. Download statistical data Comparison 1 Topical treatment Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis inactive control: heparin gel versus placebo, Outcome 1 Disappearance of signs and symptoms.

Comparison 1 Topical treatment versus inactive control: heparin gel versus placebo, Outcome 2 Pain resolution. Comparison click here Topical treatment versus inactive control: heparin gel versus placebo, Outcome 3 Oedema resolution. Comparison 1 Topical treatment versus inactive control: heparin gel versus placebo, Outcome 4 Erythema resolution. Comparison 1 Topical treatment versus inactive control: heparin gel versus placebo, Outcome 5 Local adverse events.

Comparison 2 Topical treatment versus inactive control: Essaven gel versus placebo, Outcome 2 Treatment related adverse events. Comparison 3 Topical treatment versus inactive control: Phlebolan versus placebo, Outcome 1 Clinical response. Comparison 3 Topical treatment versus inactive control: Phlebolan versus Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis, Outcome 2 Adverse events.

Comparison 4 Topical or oral treatment versus inactive control: topical or oral diclofenac versus Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis intervention, Outcome 1 Clinical response.

Comparison 4 Topical or oral treatment versus Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis control: topical or oral diclofenac versus no intervention, Outcome 2 Reduction in symptom severity. Comparison 4 Topical or oral treatment versus inactive control: topical or oral diclofenac versus no intervention, Outcome 3 Pain reduction. Comparison 4 Topical or oral treatment versus inactive control: topical or oral diclofenac versus no intervention, Outcome 4 Oedema reduction.

Comparison 4 Topical or oral treatment versus inactive Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis topical or oral diclofenac versus no intervention, Outcome 5 Erythema reduction. Comparison 4 Topical or oral treatment versus inactive control: topical or oral diclofenac versus no intervention, Outcome 6 Skin temperature reduction. Comparison 5 Topical treatment versus active control: transdermal nitroglycerine versus heparinoid gel, Outcome 1 Disappearance of signs and symptoms. Comparison 5 Topical treatment versus active Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis transdermal Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis versus heparinoid gel, Outcome 2 Time h to pain disappearance.

Comparison 5 Topical treatment versus active control: transdermal nitroglycerine versus heparinoid gel, Outcome 3 Time h to halving of erythema. Comparison 5 Topical treatment versus active control: transdermal nitroglycerine versus heparinoid gel, Outcome 4 Time h to halving of fibrous cord. Comparison 5 Topical treatment versus active control: transdermal nitroglycerine versus heparinoid gel, Outcome 5 Time h to halving of oedema.

Comparison 5 Topical treatment Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis active control: transdermal nitroglycerine versus heparinoid gel, Outcome 6 Adverse events. Comparison 6 Topical treatment versus active control: notoginseny cream versus heparinoid cream, Outcome 1 Persistence of signs and symptoms at 48 h. Comparison 6 Topical treatment versus active control: notoginseny cream versus heparinoid cream, Outcome 2 Mean time h for clinical resolution. Comparison 7 Topical treatment Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis active Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis topical versus oral diclofenac, Outcome 1 Clinical response.

Comparison 7 Topical treatment versus active control: topical versus oral diclofenac, Outcome 2 Reduction in symptom severity. Comparison 7 Topical treatment versus active control: topical versus oral diclofenac, Outcome 3 Pain reduction. Comparison 7 Topical treatment versus active control: topical versus oral diclofenac, Outcome 4 Oedema reduction.

Comparison 7 Topical treatment versus active control: topical versus oral diclofenac, Outcome 5 Erythema reduction. Comparison 7 Topical treatment versus active control: topical versus oral diclofenac, Outcome 6 Skin temperature reduction. Study conception: Di Nisio.

Protocol development: Di Nisio, Rutjes, Porreca. Search development: The Cochrane Vascular Group Trials Search Co-ordinator Screening and acquisition of data: Di Nisio, Peinemann, Rutjes.

Analysis and interpretation of data: Di Nisio, Peinemann, Porreca, Rutjes. Statistical analysis: Di Nisio, Rutjes. Drafting of the manuscript: Di Nisio, Rutjes. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Di Nisio, Rutjes, Peinemann, Porreca, Rutjes. Obtained funding: not applicable, no funding available Supervision: Rutjes. MDN, EP, and AWSR performed the review as part of their routine research Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis, without dedicated internal or external funding.

FP received no internal or Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis funding. MDN: Dr Di Nisio declares he received consulting fees from Bayer Health Care and Grifols outside the submitted work. FP: none known EP: none known AWSR: none known We planned to use random-effects meta-analyses to summarise outcome data across studies. For outcomes where only a single study was available, we used the fixed-effect option in RevMan RevMan We planned to explore between-trial heterogeneity by stratifying the main outcomes for trial characteristics, treatment and patient-related features; however, these exploratory analyses turned out not to be feasible Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis to the limited number of RCTs and the heterogeneity of study interventions and outcomes.

We followed an in-house generated standard protocol, for the definition of outcomes, searches, risk of bias assessments, data-collection and statistical analyses, The description of the methods therefore partly overlaps with our previous reviews in this field Di Nisio ; Di Nisio Phlebitis was "diagnosed [clinically] by the presence of pain, erythema, oedema, and fibrous cord in area around the catheter. Measurements at entry and 48 h later. These were totaled in the Results section as well, where we assumed that the range of the combined scale was from 6 to The diagnosis of phlebitis was clinical.

Mean Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis : Thrombophlebitis was diagnosed clinically "when a tender palpable cord or a red flare developed over the vein after stopping the infusion. Quote: "The original difference in radioactivity between this site and the corresponding area on the opposite unaffected Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis was assumed to represent the total radioactivity contained in the thrombus and locally accumulated inflammatory exudate.

Presence of the thrombus was objectively tested using ultrasonography. Only the participants with superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity were included in this review. Ultrasonography was repeated on days 7—9 and 14—16 to verify thrombus extension. Trialists did not report whether thrombophlebitis Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis defined by the presence of a thrombus. We did not report the study details relating to the participant with lower extremity phlebitis.

Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis study stratified Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis the time to onset of symptoms, but this related to those with lower extremity phlebitis only COI : conflict of interest; EG : Esseven gel; G MC : General Medical Council UK Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis IM : intramuscular; IV : intravenous ly ; sc : subcutaneously; VAS : visual analogue scale; VTE : venous thromboembolism.

Anticoagulants were administered to 6 participants in the intervention group and 1 in the control group Clinical Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis of the superficial phlebitis was done Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis the nurse personnel every 24 h until healing or for a maximum follow-up of 7 d Funding: Laboratorios Menarini, S. Barcelona provided the product samples and financial Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis for the conduct of the study 6 4.

Quote: "There were five protocol deviations in the intervention group and one in the control group. In the intervention group, three cases were included in the study for a second time; additionally, in this group two cases were identified as the same patient treated for a few days simultaneously for two concomitant episodes of phlebitis. All these participants were considered as treatment failures Quote: "Sixteen patients in the intervention group and 18 in the control group were discharged before phlebitis had healed.

Five patients in the intervention group Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis four Ton bei Varizen the control group decided to withdraw from the study.

One patient in the intervention group and two in the control group developed concomitant illnesses and application of the study preparation was discontinued. One patient in the intervention group died of liver cirrhosis, and another one developed contact urticaria.

In one patient of the control group, study medication was insufficient due to Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis size of the phlebitis lesion 29 cm. For the intention-to-treat analysis all these cases were considered as failures" Intervention A : heparinoid ointment applied Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis a thin layer to the skin of the affected part and its surrounding area two times per day for 48 h Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis B : mL of ichthammol glycerine applied while doing dressing on the affected site 2 times daily for 48 h.

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Objectives To summarise the evidence from randomised clinical trials RCTs concerning the efficacy and safety of topical, oral or parenteral medical therapy of superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity. Search methods The Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Vascular Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register last searched April and the Cochrane Register of StudiesIssue 3. Selection criteria RCTs comparing any topical, oral or parenteral medical treatment to no intervention or placebo, or Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis two different medical interventions e.

Data collection and analysis We extracted data on methodological quality, patient characteristics, interventions and outcomes, including improvement of signs and symptoms as the primary effectiveness outcome, and number of participants experiencing side effects of the study treatments as the primary safety outcome. Main results We identified 13 studies participants.

Plain language summary Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis for superficial infusion thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity Background Superficial thrombophlebitis is an inflammatory condition of the veins just below the surface of the skin.

Study characteristics and key results In the current review, which looked for studies up to Aprilhttp://varizens.de/biotin-mit-krampfadern.php identified 13 studies involving participants. Quality of the evidence Some of the included studies may have been biased due to design limitations, but we could not always assess this risk because the original researchers did not always provide enough information to judge.

Open Figure Download Powerpoint slide Implications for practice The evidence about the treatment of acute infusion superficial thrombophlebitis is limited and of low quality. Implications for research The effect of treatment in preventing Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis such as suppurative superficial thrombophlebitis, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and the effects, if any, on the underlying thrombosis remain unknown.

Topical treatment versus inactive control: heparin gel versus placebo Outcome or subgroup title No. Topical treatment versus inactive control: Essaven gel versus placebo Outcome or subgroup title No. Topical treatment versus inactive control: Phlebolan versus placebo Outcome or subgroup title No.

Topical or oral treatment versus inactive control: Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis or oral diclofenac versus no intervention Outcome or subgroup title No.

Topical treatment versus active control: transdermal nitroglycerine versus heparinoid gel Outcome or subgroup title No. Topical treatment versus active control: notoginseny cream versus heparinoid cream Outcome or subgroup title No. Topical treatment versus active control: topical Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis oral diclofenac Outcome or subgroup title No.

The severity of signs allowed thrombophlebitis to be graded into five Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis as follows: Grade I: pain, without Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis inflammatory signs Grade II: pain with erythema or swelling Grade III: pain, erythema, oedema and a palpable venous cord extending less than 5 cm Grade IV, all signs of Grade III in a extension of more than 5 cm with perivein induration Grade V adds frank vein thrombosis with or without suppuration Grade I thrombophlebitis was rejected for study.

Quote: "randomised study" Allocation concealment selection bias Unclear risk Method of allocation concealment not reported Blinding of participants and personnel performance bias All outcomes Low risk "Double blind study".

Quote: "The control group was treated with SPE ointment of identical physical characteristics to those of the GTN ointment. Thus, the study population consisted of 40 participants. Quote: "Forty-seven patients were admitted to this study. Of these, seven patients were excluded, three because they were discharged from the hospital Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis the last evaluation and four because the protocol was not completed. Quote: "The randomization process was controlled by an external statistician" Allocation concealment selection bias Unclear risk Quote: "Sealed envelopes were opened at the end of evaluation of all subjects".

Not clear if the envelopes were consecutively numbered and opaque and whether these were actually used to assign the treatment, as they were opened at the end of evaluation Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis than at the time of randomisation. The use of an external statistician likely refers to central randomisation, but the applied methods remain unclear Blinding of participants and personnel performance bias All outcomes Low risk Double blind study.

Quote: "Operators were unaware of the content of the tube" and "Placebo comparable to Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis was used Aventis Pharma, Milan, Italy " Blinding of outcome assessment detection bias All outcomes Low risk Not explicitly reported, but likely blinded Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis treatment assignment was revealed after outcome assessment.

Quote: "Sealed envelopes were opened at the end of evaluation of all subjects" Incomplete outcome data attrition bias All outcomes Unclear risk The number of randomised participants is not explicitly reported. It remains unclear if all participants randomised were evaluated and included in the analysis Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis reporting reporting bias Low risk Authors Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis all outcomes from the Methods section in the Results or Discussion sections.

Quote: "The 65 patients were divided randomly Thema frühe Symptome von Krampfadern Beinerkrankung 17,6 two groups. Study personnel was not blinded as different dressing procedures were used for just click for source two topical study treatments.

Quote: "In cases where Hirudoid cream was applied, a cotton swab was used after the cannula had been removed, but no dressing was applied to the site after the cream was applied". It is unclear if participants were blinded Blinding of outcome assessment detection bias All outcomes Unclear risk It Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis not reported whether the outcome assessment was blinded.

Sex : 0 males Mean age : As each patient received 4 tubes, there were unique numbers provided to the tubes. The randomisation code was opened after the end of trial.

It was not reported who allocated the packages to the participants, nor was it clear if the coding mieux krank zu entfernen Krampfadern Tetraplegie consecutive. As it was not reported whether the tubes were identical in appearance, we judged unclear risk Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis bias.

Blinding of participants and personnel performance bias All outcomes Low risk Double blind study. Participants were explicitly reported to be blinded to study treatment. The active and placebo Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis were reported to be identical in colour and consistency. It was not reported if the tubes were identical as well.

Blinding of treating personnel was not explicitly reported. Blinding of outcome assessment detection bias All outcomes Low risk Outcomes were assessed jointly by the participant and the physician assessing the outcome, who were Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis explicitly reported to be blinded to study Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Incomplete outcome data attrition bias All outcomes Low risk It appears that the study included all randomised participants in the data analyses Selective reporting reporting bias High risk Induration was planned as an outcome but not reported.

The authors assumed that the follow-up duration of 10 d was too short to observe a decrease of induration as a Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis to the therapy. At the trial level, we judge this as high risk of bias. Treatment was repeated daily Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis at least 5 d and continued thereafter if symptoms persisted Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Time to relief of local symptoms and signs and Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis rate of local decline in radioactivity not extracted Outcomes assessed every every day for 5 days.

Quote: "treatment schedules distributed in random order" Allocation concealment selection bias Low risk Quote: "One hundred envelopes were prepared, sealed, and numbered in sequence, each containing one of two treatment schedules distributed in random order. As each patient was admitted to the trial his treatment was selected by opening the next envelope, which indicated whether the patient was to receive the contents of a green or a red tube.

Quote: "After Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis of the trial the red tubes were found to contain the active, heparinoid compound and the green tubes the placebo cream. Quote: "All patients successfully completed a full course of treatment and no Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis or systemic side effects were observed.

Trialists Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis not report who allocated the packages to the participants, nor was it clear if Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis coding was consecutive.

As the Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis were identical in appearance, we judged low risk Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis bias Blinding of participants and personnel performance bias All outcomes Low risk Double blind study Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis coded Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis. Quote: visit web page patient, research assistant and principal investigator were blinded to the treatment group.

Age Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis sex not reported. It is not reported whether thrombophlebitis Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis defined by the presence of a thrombus nor if ultrasonography was performed Interventions Intervention A : pentosan polysulphate sodium ointment 0. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest: not reported and no COI forms available. Study reported in abstract form only. Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis concealment selection bias Unclear http://varizens.de/krampfadern-strumpfhosen-aus-wie-zu-waehlen-1.php Not reported.

In line with our protocol we judged low risk of bias as there was an attempt to blind. We acknowledge that colour coding may have increased the awareness of personnel and even participants to distinguish the active and placebo ointments. Blinding of outcome assessment detection bias All outcomes Low risk Double blind study; although it is not explicitly reported if Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis assessors the physician for oedema, induration and erythema; the participant for pain were blinded, we deduce that they were, Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis the treatment assignment was reported to be disclosed at the end of the study.

Participants were first divided based on the time elapsed from onset of symptoms and subsequently randomised to study treatment Allocation concealment selection bias Unclear risk Not reported Blinding of participants and personnel performance bias All outcomes High risk Participants and personnel were not blinded to study treatment.

Quote: "3 casi di pazienti tolti dallo studio in fase del tutto precoce" Selective reporting reporting bias Low risk For the entire group including lower extremity phlebitis, authors reported Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis outcomes from the Methods section in the Results or Discussion section.

As lower extremity was not the focus of the study, we judged that there was no indication for high risk of bias Other bias Unclear risk Unclear if participants were consecutively included Vilardel a COI : conflict of interest; EG : Esseven gel; G MC : General Medical Council UK ; IM : intramuscular; IV : intravenous ly ; sc : subcutaneously; VAS : visual analogue scale; VTE : venous thromboembolism.

For each patient, two tubes were available. For each patient the investigator received an opaque envelope with the inclusion number and click at this page identification of the sample; codes could only be disclosed in the case of severe adverse events and at the end of the statistical evaluation. Quote: "[L]abelling was neutral and identified with the patient inclusion number. For each patient the investigator received an opaque envelope with the inclusion number and the identification of the sample; codes could only be disclosed in the case of severe adverse events and at the end of the statistical evaluation" Blinding of outcome assessment detection bias All outcomes Low risk Quote: "[C]odes could only be disclosed in the case of severe adverse events and at the end of the statistical evaluation" Incomplete outcome data attrition bias All outcomes High risk 6 4.

It is currently not possible to extract data from the study Xu Methods Not reported Participants Not reported Interventions Not reported Outcomes Not reported Notes Study available in Chinese. Likely an open study with no allocation concealment: "Method of allocation concealment: Not Applicable. Blinding and masking: Not Applicable" Participants All adult patients admitted in selected adult wards who develop phlebitis of the upper limb with a visual infusion phlebitis score of two or more as the result of intravenous therapy.

Interventions Intervention A : heparinoid ointment applied in a thin layer to the skin of the affected part and its surrounding area two times per day for 48 h Intervention B : mL of ichthammol glycerine applied while doing dressing on the affected site 2 times daily for 48 h. Outcomes Efficacy of intervention at 6 weeks Starting date 11 June Contact information Dr Punitha Ezhilarasu: punitha cmcvellore.

I ntervention C : magsulph glycerine applied in a thin layer to the Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis of the affected part and its surrounding area two times per day for 72 h. Outcomes Primary : efficacy of intervention at 6 weeks Secondary : pharmacoeconomics of intervention at 6 weeks Starting date 15 July Contact information Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Bikash Medhi: drbikashus yahoo.

Heparinoids versus nitroglycerin in the treatment of superficial phlebitis [Heparinoides frente a nitroglicerina en el tratamiento de las flebitis superficiales]. Revista Clinica Espanola ; 5 : - Medicina Clinica ; 10 Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis - 3. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic action of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate in the treatment of infusion-related thrombophlebitis. Postgraduate Medical Journal ; 69 : 37 - Treatment of superficial vein thrombophlebitis of the arm with Essaven gel--a placebo-controlled, randomized study.

Angiology ; 52 Suppl 3 : S63 - 7. Notoginseny cream in the treatment of phlebitis. Journal of Infusion Nursing ; 26 1 : 49 - Clinical double-blind study on percutaneous heparinoid therapy in postoperative infusion thrombophlebitis [Perkutane Heparinoidtherapy bei postoperativen Infusionsthrombophlebitiden klinischer Doppelblindversuch ].

Therapiewoche ; 28 39 : - 3. Treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis: a randomized double-blind trial of heparinoid cream. British Medical Journal ; 3 : - 6. A randomized trial of dalteparin compared with ibuprofen for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis ; 10 Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis : - 9.

The topical treatment of infusion thrombophlebitis with pentosan polysulfate ointment - a randomised double blind study. Annals of Hematology ; 68 Suppl 1 Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis A Fortschritte der Medizin ; 95 23 : - Use of defibrotide in the treatment of acute superficial thrombophlebitis of the limbs [Impiego del defibrotide nel trattamento delle tromboflebiti acute superficiali degli arti].

Minerva Chirurgica ; 44 9 : - Topical heparin for the treatment of acute superficial phlebitis secondary to indwelling intravenous catheter. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ; 54 12 : - Treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis: a comparative trial between placebo, Hirudoid cream and piroxicam Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis. Annales Chirurgiae et Gynaecologiae ; 79 2 : 92 - 6. Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Medica Italiana ; 11 : - Effect of transdermal Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis trinitrate and anti-inflammatory gel in infusion phlebitis.

Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis and New Zealand Journal of Surgery ; 73 10 : - 6. Clinical contribution to pharmacology in venous pathology and its complications. Effects of heparin in gel form [Contributo clinico alla farmacologia nella patologia venosa e le sue complicanze]. Minerva Cardioangiologica ; 35 4 Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis - Proceedings of the Union Internationale de Phlebologie - 10th World Congress; Sep ; Strasbourg.

Liposomal heparin spray: a new formula in adjunctive Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis of superficial venous thrombosis. Angiology ; 56 1 : 9 - Giornale Italiano di Angiologia ; 6 2 : - New England Journal of Medicine ; : - 5. Peripheral venous complications of a hyperosmolar mOsm nutritive mixture: the effect of heparin and hydrocortisone. A multicenter double-blinded random study in 98 patients. Clinical Nutrition ; 5 1 : 57 ist Ob für Krampfadern Operation notwendig Beine Heparin and infusion phlebitis: a prospective study.

Annals of Pharmacotherapy ; 26 10 : - 4. Local Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis for superficial thrombophlebitis [Lokal therapie bei oberflachlicher Thrombophlebitis. Plazebo-kontrollierte Doppelblindstudie mit Blutegelextrakthal Tiger Salbe]. Die Medizinische Welt ; 41 7 : - 5. Wirksamkeit eines Diclofenac-Natrium-Gels im Vergleich zu Placebo- und Heparin-Gel]. Zeitschrift fur Allgemeinmedizin ; 67 : - R 41a specific serotonin antagonist, relieves symptoms of acute superficial thrombophlebitis.

Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental ; 30 4 : - Clinical trial with BPH for the treatment of superficial phlebitis [Impiego clinico del BPH nel trattamentodelle flebiti superficiali]. Acta Chirurgica Italica ; 36 2 : - Thrombophlebitis following peripheral administered parenteral nutrition - A Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis clinical study of the effect of infusion additives.

Surgical Research Communications ; 9 1 : 69 - Treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis with a new emulsion gel [Behandlung der Thrombophlebitissuperficialis mit einem neuartigen Emulsiongel]. Die Medizinische Welt ; 37 21 : - 2. Use of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate to reduce failure of intravenous infusion due to phlebitis and extravasation. The Lancet ; 2 : - Effect of Notoginseng alcohol external applying to treat peripheral phlebitis induced by fluid infusion in chronic hepatopathy patients.

Chinese Nursing Research ; 18 : Clinical observation of Mai Luo Tong granule Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis treating thrombophlebitis. Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine ; 8 http://varizens.de/die-nehmen-schmerz-thrombophlebitis.php Prevalence of infusion related inflammation of the vein Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis the comparison of the effectiveness of heparinoid application and ichthammol glycerin application on the reduction of infusion related inflammation of the vein.

Comparison of please click for source effectiveness of Ichthammol glycerine,Heparinoid application and Magsulph glycerine application on the Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis of infusion related inflammation of the vein.

A one week, double-blind, adaptive, randomized, multicenter study to compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical diclofenac gel versus Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis.

Efficacy and tolerability of hirudoid cream in prophylaxis and treatment infusion phlebitis. Additional references Bregenzer Bregenzer TConen DSakmann PWidmer AF.

Is routine replacement Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis peripheral intravenous catheters necessary? Archives of Internal Medicine ; Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis : - 6. Infusion thrombophlebitis and infection with various cannulas. The Lancet ; 2 : - 3.

Iatrogenic illness in a department of general internal medicine: a prospective study. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine ; 56 4 : - Primary prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsIssue 2. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg. Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsIssue 4. Click at this page Database of Systematic ReviewsIssue 8.

Ultrasonographic investigation of the pathogenesis of infusion thrombophlebitis. British Journal of Surgery ; 84 5 : - 5. Prophylaxis against postinfusion phlebitis. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics ; 2 : - 6. Infusion thrombophlebitis: a prospective comparison of Vialon and Teflon cannulae in anaesthetic and postoperative use. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care ; 16 3 : - Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation GRADE Working Group, Guyatt Guyatt GHOxman ADVist GEKunz RFalck-Ytter YAlonso-Coello Pet al.

GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. British Medical Journal ; : - 6. A modified test for small-study effects in meta-analyses of controlled trials with binary endpoints. Statistics in Medicine ; 25 20 : - The natural click at this page of intravenous catheter associated phlebitis.

Archives of Internal Medicine ; 7 : - 5. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5. The Cochrane Collaboration, Kearon Kearon CKahn SRAgnelli G Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis, Goldhaber SRaskob GEComerota AJAmerican College of Chest Physicians.

Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines 8th Edition. Chest ; 6 Suppl : S - S. Risk factors for peripheral intravenous catheter infection Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis hospitalized patients: a prospective study of patients. American Journal of Infection Control ; 37 8 : - 6.

Infection control in intravenous therapy. Annals of Internal Medicine ; 79 6 : - Evaluation of dressing regimens for prevention of infection with peripheral intravenous catheters. Gauze, a transparent polyurethane dressing, and an iodophor-transparent dressing. JAMA ; 17 : - Risk factors for infusion-related phlebitis with small peripheral venous catheters.

A randomized controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine ; 10 : - The risk of bloodstream infection in adults with different intravascular devices: a systematic review of published prospective studies.

Mayo Clinic Proceedings ; 81 9 : - Infusion phlebitis in patients with acute pneumonia. Chest ; 6 : - British Medical Journal ; : - Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, Transcutaneous electrostimulation for osteoarthritis of the knee.

In: Higgins JPT, Green S editorsCochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5. Smith Smith IHathaway MGoldman CNg JBrunton JSimor AEet al. A randomized study to determine complications associated with the duration of heparin locks.

Prevention of peripheral venous catheter complications with an intravenous therapy team. Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis of Internal Medicine ; 5 : - 7. Bayesian approaches to clinical trials and health-care evaluation. Stata [Computer program] Stata Corp LP College Station. Texas, USA: Stata Corp LP College Station, Stein Stein JMPruitt BA Jr. A lethal iatrogenic disease. New England Journal of Medicine ; 26 : - 5.

Funnel plots for detecting bias in meta-analysis: guidelines on choice of axis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology ; 54 10 : - Infection related to intravenous infusions. The epidemiology of peripheral vein infusion thrombophlebitis: a critical review. Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Journal of Medicine ; 2 : - The Rhode Island Nosocomial Infection Consortium. An epidemiologic study of the risks associated with peripheral intravenous catheters.

American Journal of Epidemiology ; 6 : - Explaining heterogeneity in meta-analysis: a comparison of methods. Statistics in Medicine ; 18 20 : - Peripheral venous nutrition: the equal relevance of volume load and osmolarity in relation to phlebitis. Clinical Nutrition ; 10 2 : 71 - 5. Intravenous therapy team and peripheral venous catheter-associated complications. Archives of Internal Medicine ; 6 : - 4.

Clinically-indicated replacement versus routine replacement of peripheral venous catheters. Treatment for superficial infusion thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity. Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsIssue 3. CD ] CrossRef Version 2 Treatment for superficial infusion thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity Marcello Di Nisio, Frank Peinemann, Ettore Porreca, Anne WS Rutjes Article first published online: 20 Nov DOI: CD Number of times Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis : 0 PDF Info References Figures Tables Close article support pane Cochrane Cochrane About Cochrane Cochrane.

All Rights Reserved 1 Disappearance of signs and symptoms 2 Pain resolution 3 Oedema resolution 4 Erythema resolution 5 Local adverse events 5. Quote: "randomised study" Blinding of participants and personnel performance bias All outcomes "Double blind study".

Method of sequence generation not reported. Quote: "The randomization process was controlled by Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis external statistician" Quote: "Sealed envelopes were opened at the end of evaluation of all subjects".

The use of an external statistician likely refers to central randomisation, but the applied methods remain unclear Blinding of Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis and personnel performance bias All outcomes Double blind study. Quote: "Operators were Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis of the content of the tube" and "Placebo comparable to EG was used Aventis Pharma, Milan, Italy " Blinding of outcome assessment detection bias All outcomes Not explicitly reported, but likely blinded as treatment assignment was revealed after outcome assessment.

Quote: "Sealed envelopes were opened at the end of evaluation of all subjects" Incomplete outcome data attrition bias All outcomes The number of randomised participants is not explicitly reported. It remains unclear if all participants randomised were evaluated and included in the analysis Authors reported all outcomes from the Methods section in the Results Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis Discussion sections. Funding: none reported Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest: not reported and no Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis forms available Method of sequence Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis not reported.

It is unclear if participants were blinded Blinding of outcome assessment detection bias All outcomes It is not reported whether the outcome assessment was blinded. Blinding of participants and personnel performance Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis All outcomes Double blind study.

Blinding of outcome assessment detection bias All outcomes Outcomes were assessed jointly by the participant and the physician assessing the outcome, who were both explicitly reported to be blinded to study treatment Incomplete outcome data attrition bias All outcomes It appears that the study included all randomised participants in the data analyses Induration was planned as an outcome but not reported. Treatment was repeated daily for at least 5 d and continued thereafter if symptoms persisted Time Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis relief of local symptoms and signs and the Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis of local decline in radioactivity not extracted Outcomes assessed every every day for 5 days.

Quote: "treatment schedules distributed in random order" Quote: "One hundred envelopes were prepared, sealed, and numbered in sequence, each containing one of two treatment schedules distributed in random order.

As the packages were identical in appearance, we judged low risk of bias Blinding of participants and personnel performance bias All outcomes Double Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis study using coded packages. It is not reported whether thrombophlebitis was defined by the presence http://varizens.de/leisten-krampfadern-3.php a thrombus nor if ultrasonography was performed Intervention A : pentosan polysulphate sodium ointment 0.

Severity of symptoms was graded from 0 to möglich es Beinmassage Krampfadern ist, für ob 0 standing for no symptoms, 1 for light, 2 for medium, 3 for strong, and 4 for very strong irritation Outcomes assessed at 6 days Funding: not reported Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest: not reported and no COI forms available Use of colour-coded ointment described; method of allocation concealment not reported in sufficient detail to allow a judgment Blinding of participants and personnel performance bias All outcomes Double blind study with colour-coded ointment.

Blinding of outcome assessment Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis bias All outcomes Double blind study; although it is not explicitly reported if outcome assessors the physician for oedema, induration and erythema; the participant for pain were blinded, we deduce that they were, as the treatment assignment was reported to be disclosed at the end of the study.

The study stratified by click at this page time to onset of symptoms, but this related to those with lower extremity phlebitis only Method of random sequence generation Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis reported.

Participants were first divided based on the time elapsed from onset of symptoms and subsequently randomised to study treatment Blinding of participants and personnel Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis bias All outcomes Continue reading and personnel were not blinded to study treatment.

Quote: "3 casi di read article tolti dallo studio in fase del tutto precoce" For the entire group including lower extremity phlebitis, authors reported all outcomes from the Methods section in the Results or Discussion section. As lower extremity was not the focus of the study, we judged that there was no indication for high risk of bias a COI : conflict of interest; EG : Esseven gel; G MC : General Medical Council UK ; IM : intramuscular; IV : intravenous ly ; sc : subcutaneously; VAS : visual analogue scale; VTE : Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis thromboembolism.

For each patient the investigator received an opaque envelope with the inclusion number and the identification of the sample; codes could Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis be disclosed in the case of severe adverse events and at the end of the statistical evaluation" Blinding of outcome assessment detection bias All outcomes Quote: "[C]odes could only be disclosed in the case of severe adverse events and at the end of the statistical evaluation" Incomplete outcome data attrition bias All outcomes 6 4.

It is currently not possible to extract data from the study Study available in Chinese. It is currently not possible to extract data from the study Prevalence of infusion related inflammation of the vein and the comparison of the effectiveness of heparinoid application and ichthammol glycerin application on the reduction of infusion related inflammation of the vein Unclear method of random sequence generation: "Method of generating randomization sequence: Coin toss, Lottery, toss of dice, shuffling cards et".

Blinding and masking: Not Applicable" All adult patients admitted in selected adult wards who develop phlebitis of the upper limb with a visual infusion phlebitis score of two or more as the result of intravenous therapy. Intervention A : heparinoid ointment applied in a thin layer to the skin of the affected part and its surrounding area two times per day for 48 h Intervention B : mL of ichthammol glycerine applied while doing dressing Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis the affected site 2 times daily for Drogen mit Thrombophlebitis h.


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